Arti Dhand


Kulkarni , Ravikala V.

Introduction


In everyday life, many people define natural phenomena without the need of a god or gods. They do not deny the existence of one or more gods, they simply say that this existence is not necessary.

Gods do not provide a purpose to life, nor influence it, according to this view. They silently adopt philosophical naturalism and use the scientific method. Their belief in a god does not affect their results. Theoretic atheism tries to find arguments against the existence of god, and to disprove the arguments of theism, such as the argument from design or Pascal's Wager.

These theoretical reasons have many forms, most of them are ontological or epistemological. Some rely on psychology or sociology.

According to Immanuel Kant , there can be no proof of a supreme being that is made using reason. In his work, "Critique of pure reason", he tries to show that all attempts of either proving the existence of God, or disproving it, end in logical contradictions. Kant says that it is impossible to know whether there are any higher beings. This makes him an agnostic. Ludwig Feuerbach published The Essence of Christianity in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Word Pictures in the New Testament. Atheists in the original sense of being without God and also in the sense of hostility to God from failure to worship him.

See Paul's words in Ro 1: Atheism in Pagan Antiquity. Atheism and atheist are words formed from Greek roots and with Greek derivative endings. Nevertheless they are not Greek; their formation is not consonant with Greek usage. In exactly the same way as ungodly, atheos was used as an expression of severe censure and moral condemnation; this use is an old one, and the oldest that can be traced.

Not till later do we find it employed to denote a certain philosophical creed. Check date values in: A History of God. A clear distinction is rarely drawn in modern writings between these two definitions, but some old uses of atheism meant disbelief in the singular God, not in polytheistic deities.

The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Institute for Humanist Studies. Persons professing atheism, skepticism, disbelief, or irreligion, including the militantly antireligious opposed to all religion. Persons professing no religion, nonbelievers, agnostics, freethinkers, uninterested, or dereligionized secularists indifferent to all religion but not militantly so. I shall understand by 'atheism' a critique and a denial of the major claims of all varieties of theism Thus, a child who has received no religious instruction and has never heard about God, is not an atheist - for he is not denying any theistic claims.

Similarly in the case of an adult who, if he has withdrawn from the faith of his father without reflection or because of frank indifference to any theological issue, is also not an atheist - for such an adult is not challenging theism and not professing any views on the subject.

Angeles, Prometheus Books, The presumption of atheism and other philosophical essays on God, freedom, and immortality. Barnes and Noble, pp 14ff. The Review of Politics 11 3: Sermons on our duty towards God, our neighbour, and ourselves 4th Ed. Retrieved September 1, KFS is caused by a failure of segmentation of the cervical vertebrae during early fetal development.

Although fusion of cervical vertebrae and malformation may be present in both, retroflexion of head is usually not seen in KFS and the presence of retroflexed head should raise suspicion of iniencephaly. At times it is difficult or impossible to differentiate these two; however it is important to separate the two because KFS is not lethal and can be corrected surgically. Other entities that come in differential diagnosis are nuchal tumors such as teratoma, goiter, lymphangioma and Jarcho—Levin syndrome.

Other findings in our case are hypoplastic lungs, cerebellar hypoplasia, bilateral club foot, and single-umbilical artery. Chen in his study has found pulmonary defects and single-umbilical artery in In summary, iniencephaly is one of the uncommon NTD which causes obstructed labor and necessitates proper obstetric management. We present this case for its rarity and isolated iniencephaly without any other major malformations are not always fatal, and should be diagnosed antenatally because proper postnatal surgical therapy can be planned.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List J Pediatr Neurosci v. Kulkarni , Ravikala V. Rao , Mohan B. Alur , 1 and S. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Iniencephaly is a rare neural tube defect characterized by extreme retroflexion of the head with the absence of neck due to spinal deformities. Anencephaly, Iniencephaly, Klippel—Fiel syndrome. Introduction Iniencephaly is a rare birth defect having retroflexion of the head combined with severe distortion of the spine.

Case Report A year-old primi visited obstetric out-patient department with complaints of abdomen and back pain. Open in a separate window. Discussion Iniencephaly is an uncommon neural tube defect NTD. Occipital bone deficit leading to enlarged foramen magnum. Upward turned face with chin continuous with chest because of the absence of neck.

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