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It can be argued that they are one of the most critical parts of the whole dissolution test and studies demonstrate just how much influence vessels have on the final results. Dissolution vessels play a big part in the dissolution process and it is perhaps surprising that such a large tolerance in the inside diameter is allowed.
Part of the justification for this is that most vessels are formed from extruded glass tubing and this has significant variations in its ID. Also the hemisphere at the bottom of the vessel has traditionally been hand formed and this makes it hard to manufacture to a tight tolerance.
Additionally the flange at the top can affect the centering and the vessel verticality. Recently some bath manufacturers have started to make the flange out of moulded plastic which is both more reproducible and allows the vessels to be rigidly fixed into the tester and prevents rim chipping and breakage. This should therefore be avoided.
Amber vessels are used to reduce the amount of light that can get into the vessel for light sensitive applications and should be used with amber vessel covers. They normally allow enough light in for the dissolution process to be visible. PTFE vessels that are totally opaque and do not allow any light to pass through are also available. All vessels should be serialised and where possible used in the same bath location and orientation to minimise the physical differences.
There is sometimes a temptation to use plastic vessels to save money, but in reality this is usually a false economy. Plastic vessels are easily scratched, crack very quickly and have much poorer heat transmission than glass vessels.
Plastic vessels or PTFE coated glass vessels are sometimes used where the dosage form will stick to a glass vessel. All plastic vessels are moulded and should be reproducible. However they are generally easy to scratch and care should be taken when cleaning them. There have been various studies into the effect that the shape of the vessel.
Two of the best publications are detailed below. The first publication discusses the large physical difference between the vessels available. The second article demonstrates that the fewer defects the vessels have, the more reproducible the results will be. More recently QLA pioneered a new method of making vessels using a mould that ensures they are all identical.
These vessels have ground glass rims can be freely moved within a bath or replaced if broken without having to recalibrate.
The dinar dropped below TD 3 per Euro in April and continued to depreciate albeit at a slower rate than in According to official numbers, the poverty rate in the country was Nonetheless, regional disparities are evident with the North West and Center West showing much higher poverty rates than the national rate: In terms of policies aimed at the poorest strata of the population, Tunisia has in place an unconditional cash transfer program providing a social safety net SSN to about eight percent of the population.
Eligibility is based on a combination of categorical criteria and a variation of community-based targeting, determined by social worker interviews and local committees. However, targeting, information and monitoring of these programs is considered relatively weak. In addition, a large share of the working age population is either idle, unemployed, or working in low-quality jobs.
The requested lending program for FY 19 and FY 20 has a strong emphasis on SOE reforms, with operations in the Energy and Water sectors focusing on improved utility performance along with investments and capacity building to prepare these sectors for PPP based investments. A similar engagement for the sanitation sector is also under preparation but may take more time to be completed.
This is paired with support for e-Governance with a focus on cross-cutting issues and social sector service delivery , Entrepreneurship, Economic Corridor Kasserine-Sidi Bouzid Sfax and Oasis Sustainable development scale up. As for disbursement, the targeted 20 percent disbursement in FY 18 has been exceeded With the number of new projects in the portfolio, maintaining the same rate will be a challenge. The report outlines a new framework with a three-pronged approach. Where We Work Tunisia.