Halvorsen Club of Australia

The grades will depend mostly on the quality of the seminar session led by the participants. Fractal art is an example of algorithmic art. The algorithmic information or Kolmogorov complexity of a bitstring x is the length of the shortest program that computes x and halts. Letter on what's random in physics Nature , , 26 Jan Discovering solutions with low Kolmogorov complexity and high generalization capability.

1. Introduction

Here we have a complex interaction of many egoistically chosen strategies. One natural question is: Is there an equilibrium of this game? That is, is there a choice of routes such that no commuter wants to change her route given that all the other commuters stick to their route. Another even more important question is: How bad is the overall traffic induced by the egoistic behavior of all commuters? How much better can it be if we could force all commuters to take a specific route?

Assume you want to sell a painting in an auction and you can choose the specific auction design. Ideally you want to ensure that every bidder bids her true value for the painting since this maximizes the revenue and the painting goes to the bidder who values it most. However, the bidders want to minimize their payment for the painting and thus may bid strategically e.

The question now is: Can you set up the auction such that the best bidding strategy of every bidder is to bid her true value? Is this even possible? Among others we will discuss the following questions: How can we solve assignment problems e. Are there auctions in which all bidders want to bid honestly? How does the perfect voting system look like? Has every game an equilibrium, that is, an outcome in which all players are happy?

Is it easy to find an equilibrium for a specific game? Participants This is a Master-level seminar. The typical patient with primary breast angiosarcoma is a young woman with a dense breast parenchyma. Imaging of angiosarcoma is not specific.

It is of note that mammogram or ultrasound study do not present proper pathological pattern. AS could be diagnosed as a benign lesion in particular in youngest patients. The most supportive imaging exam is considered the magnetic resonance imaging MRI that can show typical malignant signs hyperintensity on T2 images and a rapid initial intense phase followed by washout [9] , [10].

Fine-needle aspiration or core needle biopsy are necessary to obtain a definitive diagnosis [10]. In addition immunohistochemistry can be useful to identify the CD31 endothelial, indicator of vascular proliferation. The gold-standard treatment in patients affected by primary angiosarcoma of the breast is surgery consisting in modified radical mastectomy combined, when necessary, with axillary node dissection.

We analyzed surgical indication in series presenting more than 20 breast sarcoma cases selecting in this way 7 studies [1] , [9] , [10] , [14] , [15] , [16] , [17] , [18]. In our review we analyzed data on surgical treatment of patients with primary angiosarcoma of the breast: In the available literature there is not an international consensus about chemotherapy regimens to be used in patients with angiosarcoma. In the article analyzed in this review the use of chemotherapy varied largely: Soft tissue sarcomas are known to be very aggressive tumors: The medical treatment plays a fundamental role in these patients as demonstrated by Tierney et al.

An anthracycline-based chemotherapy lead to a significant improvement of disease free survival and overall survival [20]. The series presented by Frustaci et al.

In a report published by Sher et al. In a more recent work on 41 cases of metastatic angiosarcoma treated with taxane regimens, Hirata et al. The role of radiation treatment RT is limited to the residual microscopic disease after surgery of the primary tumor.

The potential impact of RT on local control and survival of patients with soft tissue sarcomas of other sites has been well documented. Adjuvant radiotherapy after surgery may have a beneficial effect for breast sarcomas, particularly for patients with microscopically positive margins. In the study by Sher et al.

Even though these results are encouraging, there is not a statically significant correlation between adjuvant radiotherapy and improved survival due to the small number of included patients. The prognosis of the angiosarcoma of the breast, like each histotype of sarcoma, is related to the tumor size, the tumor grade and the resection margin status [13].

Wide excision is mandatory to obtain free margins but even in this way, it is not easy to join a radical surgery. Most papers show how an incomplete exeresis is strictly connected with both local relapse and worst survival [1] , [10] , [26] , [27] , [28] , [29] , [30] , [31] , [32] , [33]. Literature presents different opinions regarding the correlation between tumor size and prognosis.

Most of the authors like Rosen et al. On the contrary, other authors, like Adem et al. Another fundamental parameter that has to be analyzed is the mitotic index defining the tumor grade. Therefore high-grade sarcomas of the breast present a higher risk of mortality [24] , [25] , [26] , [27] , [28] , [29]. Primary angiosarcoma of the breast is a malignant vascular neoplasm arising within breast parenchyma with or without extension into the skin.

It should be considered a different neoplasia from radiation-related AS. The incidence of primary breast angiosarcoma is approximately 17 new cases per million women [31] , [32] , [33]. This neoplasia does not present any pathognomonic sign on mammogram or ultrasound examination and can show specific radiological characteristics only at MRI. There are few available series analyzing the best option for surgical and adjuvant treatment for primary angiosarcoma of the breast.

An aggressive surgical approach seems to be accepted by most of the authors [1] , [9] , [10] , [15] , however breast conserving surgery can be proposed in selected cases. Axillary clearance is not necessary in all the patients, in fact the tumor do not follow a lymphatic way of dissemination; however bulky masses invading the axilla, necessitate an axillar node dissection in order to achieve free margins.

Even though some series present an increase in disease free survival and in the overall survival, standard medical regimens in patients suffering from breast angiosarcoma remain unclear [16]. Adjuvant chemotherapy with Taxan agents showed good outcomes but more investigations are needed. Radiotherapy also does not present a clear consensus and should be considered as adjuvant treatment in selected cases.

There is no consensus as to whether the product of an algorithm that operates on an existing image or on any input other than pseudo-random numbers can still be considered computer-generated art, as opposed to computer-assisted art. Roman Verostko argues that Islamic geometric patterns are constructed using algorithms, as are Italian Renaissance paintings which make use of mathematical techniques , in particular linear perspective and proportion.

Some of the earliest known examples of computer-generated algorithmic art were created by Georg Nees , Frieder Nake , A. These artworks were executed by a plotter controlled by a computer , and were therefore computer-generated art but not digital art.

The act of creation lay in writing the program , which specified the sequence of actions to be performed by the plotter.

Sonia Landy Sheridan established Generative Systems as a program at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago in in response to social change brought about in part by the computer-robot communications revolution. Aside from the ongoing work of Roman Verostko and his fellow algorists, the next known examples are fractal artworks created in the mid to late s.

These are important here because they use a different means of execution. Whereas the earliest algorithmic art was "drawn" by a plotter , fractal art simply creates an image in computer memory ; it is therefore digital art.

However, in a stricter sense "fractal art" is not considered algorithmic art, because the algorithm is not devised by the artist. In light of such ongoing developments, pioneer algorithmic artist Ernest Edmonds has documented the continuing prophetic role of art in human affairs by tracing the early s association between art and the computer up to a present time in which the algorithm is now widely recognized as a key concept for society as a whole.

From one point of view, for a work of art to be considered algorithmic art, its creation must include a process based on an algorithm devised by the artist.

Here, an algorithm is simply a detailed recipe for the design and possibly execution of an artwork, which may include computer code , functions , expressions , or other input which ultimately determines the form the art will take. Inasmuch as algorithms tend to be deterministic , meaning that their repeated execution would always result in the production of identical artworks, some external factor is usually introduced.

This can either be a random number generator of some sort, or an external body of data which can range from recorded heartbeats to frames of a movie. Some artists also work with organically based gestural input which is then modified by an algorithm. By this definition, fractals made by a fractal program are not art, as humans are not involved. However, defined differently, algorithmic art can be seen to include fractal art, as well as other varieties such as those using genetic algorithms.

Fractal Art is not.. Computer ized Art, in the sense that the computer does all the work. The work is executed on a computer, but only at the direction of the artist. Turn a computer on and leave it alone for an hour.