New York has been described as the "Capital of Baseball".
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In , unable to summon any significant resistance, Stuyvesant surrendered New Amsterdam to English troops, led by Colonel Richard Nicolls , without bloodshed. Several intertribal wars among the Native Americans and some epidemics brought on by contact with the Europeans caused sizeable population losses for the Lenape between the years and New York grew in importance as a trading port while under British rule in the early s.
Slavery became integrally tied to New York's economy through the labor of slaves throughout the port, and the banks and shipping tied to the American South.
Discovery of the African Burying Ground in the s, during construction of a new federal courthouse near Foley Square , revealed that tens of thousands of Africans had been buried in the area in the colonial years. The trial and acquittal in Manhattan of John Peter Zenger , who had been accused of seditious libel after criticizing colonial governor William Cosby , helped to establish the freedom of the press in North America. The Stamp Act Congress met in New York in October , as the Sons of Liberty , organized in the city, skirmished over the next ten years with British troops stationed there.
The Battle of Long Island , the largest battle of the American Revolutionary War , was fought in August within the modern-day borough of Brooklyn. After the battle, in which the Americans were defeated, the British made the city their military and political base of operations in North America. The city was a haven for Loyalist refugees and escaped slaves who joined the British lines for freedom newly promised by the Crown for all fighters.
As many as 10, escaped slaves crowded into the city during the British occupation. When the British forces evacuated at the close of the war in , they transported 3, freedmen for resettlement in Nova Scotia.
They resettled other freedmen in England and the Caribbean. The only attempt at a peaceful solution to the war took place at the Conference House on Staten Island between American delegates , including Benjamin Franklin , and British general Lord Howe on September 11, Shortly after the British occupation began, the Great Fire of New York occurred, a large conflagration on the West Side of Lower Manhattan, which destroyed about a quarter of the buildings in the city, including Trinity Church.
In , the assembly of the Congress of the Confederation made New York City the national capital shortly after the war. New York was the last capital of the U. Under New York State's gradual abolition act of , children of slave mothers were to be eventually liberated but to be held in indentured servitude until their mid-to-late twenties.
New York interracial abolitionist activism continued; among its leaders were graduates of the African Free School. The city's black population reached more than 16, in In the 19th century, the city was transformed by development relating to its status as a trading center, as well as by European immigration.
The completion of the Erie Canal through central New York connected the Atlantic port to the agricultural markets and commodities of the North American interior via the Hudson River and the Great Lakes.
Public-minded members of the contemporaneous business elite lobbied for the establishment of Central Park , which in became the first landscaped park in an American city. The Great Irish Famine brought a large influx of Irish immigrants, of whom over , were living in New York by , upwards of a quarter of the city's population. Democratic Party candidates were consistently elected to local office, increasing the city's ties to the South and its dominant party.
In , Mayor Fernando Wood called upon the aldermen to declare independence from Albany and the United States after the South seceded, but his proposal was not acted on. Rioters burned the Colored Orphan Asylum to the ground, with more than children escaping harm due to efforts of the New York City Police Department , which was mainly made up of Irish immigrants. McPherson , at least people were killed. In all, eleven black men were lynched over five days, and the riots forced hundreds of blacks to flee the city for Williamsburg , Brooklyn, and New Jersey; the black population in Manhattan fell below 10, by , which it had last been in The white working class had established dominance.
In , the modern City of New York was formed with the consolidation of Brooklyn until then a separate city , the County of New York which then included parts of the Bronx , the County of Richmond, and the western portion of the County of Queens. Throughout the first half of the 20th century, the city became a world center for industry, commerce, and communication. In , the steamship General Slocum caught fire in the East River , killing 1, people on board.
In , the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire , the city's worst industrial disaster, took the lives of garment workers and spurred the growth of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union and major improvements in factory safety standards. New York's non-white population was 36, in The Harlem Renaissance of literary and cultural life flourished during the era of Prohibition.
The larger economic boom generated construction of skyscrapers competing in height and creating an identifiable skyline. New York became the most populous urbanized area in the world in the early s, overtaking London. The metropolitan area surpassed the 10 million mark in the early s, becoming the first megacity in human history.
Returning World War II veterans created a post-war economic boom and the development of large housing tracts in eastern Queens and Nassau County as well as similar suburban areas in New Jersey. New York emerged from the war unscathed as the leading city of the world, with Wall Street leading America's place as the world's dominant economic power.
The United Nations Headquarters was completed in , solidifying New York's global geopolitical influence, and the rise of abstract expressionism in the city precipitated New York's displacement of Paris as the center of the art world. The Stonewall riots were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay community against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, , at the Stonewall Inn in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan.
They are widely considered to constitute the single most important event leading to the gay liberation movement    and the modern fight for LGBT rights in the United States.
In the s, job losses due to industrial restructuring caused New York City to suffer from economic problems and rising crime rates.
Important new sectors, such as Silicon Alley , emerged in the city's economy. New York's population reached all-time highs in the Census and then again in the Census. The city suffered the bulk of the economic damage and largest loss of human life in the aftermath of the September 11, attacks.
Two of the four airliners highjacked that day were flown into the twin towers of the World Trade Center, destroying them and killing 2, civilians, firefighters, and 71 law enforcement officers.
The North Tower was subsequently the tallest building ever to be destroyed and still is. A temporary station was built and opened on November 23, The Occupy Wall Street protests in Zuccotti Park in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan began on September 17, , receiving global attention and popularizing the Occupy movement against social and economic inequality worldwide. The Bronx River , which flows through the Bronx and Westchester County , is the only entirely fresh water river in the city.
The city's land has been altered substantially by human intervention, with considerable land reclamation along the waterfronts since Dutch colonial times; reclamation is most prominent in Lower Manhattan , with developments such as Battery Park City in the s and s. The city's total area is New York has architecturally noteworthy buildings in a wide range of styles and from distinct time periods, from the saltbox style Pieter Claesen Wyckoff House in Brooklyn, the oldest section of which dates to , to the modern One World Trade Center , the skyscraper at Ground Zero in Lower Manhattan and the most expensive office tower in the world by construction cost.
Manhattan's skyline , with its many skyscrapers, is universally recognized, and the city has been home to several of the tallest buildings in the world. These include the Woolworth Building , an early example of Gothic Revival architecture in skyscraper design, built with massively scaled Gothic detailing; completed in , for 17 years it was the world's tallest building.
The Zoning Resolution required setbacks in new buildings and restricted towers to a percentage of the lot size , to allow sunlight to reach the streets below.
The buildings have distinctive ornamentation, such as the eagles at the corners of the 61st floor on the Chrysler Building, and are considered some of the finest examples of the Art Deco style. The character of New York's large residential districts is often defined by the elegant brownstone rowhouses and townhouses and shabby tenements that were built during a period of rapid expansion from to In neighborhoods such as Riverdale in the Bronx , Ditmas Park in Brooklyn , and Douglaston in Queens , large single-family homes are common in various architectural styles such as Tudor Revival and Victorian.
Stone and brick became the city's building materials of choice after the construction of wood-frame houses was limited in the aftermath of the Great Fire of In the s, the city required their installation on buildings higher than six stories to prevent the need for excessively high water pressures at lower elevations, which could break municipal water pipes. According to the United States Geological Survey , an updated analysis of seismic hazard in July revealed a "slightly lower hazard for tall buildings" in New York City than previously assessed.
Scientists estimated this lessened risk based upon a lower likelihood than previously thought of slow shaking near the city, which would be more likely to cause damage to taller structures from an earthquake in the vicinity of the city.
New York City is often referred to collectively as the five boroughs , and in turn, there are hundreds of distinct neighborhoods throughout the boroughs, many with a definable history and character to call their own. Winters are cold and damp. The daily mean temperature in January, the area's coldest month, is Spring and autumn are unpredictable and can range from chilly to warm, although they are usually mild with low humidity.
Summers are typically warm to hot and humid, with a daily mean temperature of The city receives Average winter snowfall between and has been Hurricanes and tropical storms are rare in the New York area. See Geography of New York City for additional climate information from the outer boroughs. See or edit raw graph data. Gateway National Recreation Area contains over 26, acres 10, Hundreds of private properties are listed on the National Register of Historic Places or as a National Historic Landmark such as, for example, the Stonewall Inn , part of the Stonewall National Monument in Greenwich Village , as the catalyst of the modern gay rights movement.
It also houses the th Transportation Brigade, the nd Aeromedical Staging Squadron, and a military entrance processing station.
Other formerly active military reservations still utilized for National Guard and military training or reserve operations in the city include Fort Wadsworth in Staten Island and Fort Totten in Queens. New York City is the most populous city in the United States,  with an estimated record high of 8,, residents as of [update] ,  incorporating more immigration into the city than outmigration since the United States Census. Throughout its history, the city has been a major port of entry for immigrants into the United States; more than 12 million European immigrants were received at Ellis Island between and By , Germans constituted the largest immigrant group, followed by the Irish , Jews , and Italians.
Filipinos were the largest Southeast Asian ethnic group at 0. Indians are the largest South Asian group, comprising 2. Additionally, Greek and French Americans numbered 65, each, with those of Hungarian descent estimated at 60, people. Ukrainian and Scottish Americans numbered 55, and 35,, respectively.
People identifying ancestry from Spain numbered 30, total in Central Asians , primarily Uzbek Americans , are a rapidly growing segment of the city's non-Hispanic white population, enumerating over 30,, and including over half of all Central Asian immigrants to the United States,  most settling in Queens or Brooklyn.
Albanian Americans are most highly concentrated in the Bronx. The New York region continues to be by far the leading metropolitan gateway for legal immigrants admitted into the United States, substantially exceeding the combined totals of Los Angeles and Miami.
The New York metropolitan area is home to a prominent self-identifying gay and bisexual community estimated at nearly , individuals, the largest in the United States and one of the world's largest. Dynes , author of the Encyclopedia of Homosexuality , wrote that drag queens were the only "transgender folks around" during the June Stonewall riots. New York City has a high degree of income disparity as indicated by its Gini Coefficient of 0. New York is a global hub of business and commerce. The city is a major center for banking and finance, retailing, world trade, transportation, tourism, real estate, new media , traditional media , advertising , legal services , accountancy , insurance, theater, fashion, and the arts in the United States; while Silicon Alley , metonymous for New York's broad-spectrum high technology sphere, continues to expand.
The Port of New York and New Jersey is also a major economic engine, handling record cargo volume in , over 6. Many Fortune corporations are headquartered in New York City,  as are a large number of multinational corporations. One out of ten private sector jobs in the city is with a foreign company.
Other important sectors include medical research and technology, non-profit institutions, and universities. Manufacturing accounts for a significant but declining share of employment, although the city's garment industry is showing a resurgence in Brooklyn. New York City's most important economic sector lies in its role as the headquarters for the U. The city's securities industry, enumerating , jobs in August , continues to form the largest segment of the city's financial sector and an important economic engine, accounting in for 5 percent of the city's private sector jobs, 8.
Lower Manhattan is home to the New York Stock Exchange , on Wall Street, and the NASDAQ , at Broadway , representing the world's largest and second largest stock exchanges , respectively, when measured both by overall average daily trading volume and by total market capitalization of their listed companies in Several investment banks and investment managers headquartered in Manhattan are important participants in other global financial centers.
Many of the world's largest media conglomerates are also based in the city. Manhattan contained over million square feet Silicon Alley, centered in Manhattan, has evolved into a metonym for the sphere encompassing the New York City metropolitan region's high technology industries  involving the Internet , new media , telecommunications , digital media , software development , biotechnology , game design , financial technology " FinTech " , and other fields within information technology that are supported by its entrepreneurship ecosystem and venture capital investments.
High technology startup companies and employment are growing in New York City and the region, bolstered by the city's position in North America as the leading Internet hub and telecommunications center, including its vicinity to several transatlantic fiber optic trunk lines ,  New York's intellectual capital , and its extensive outdoor wireless connectivity.
The biotechnology sector is also growing in New York City, based upon the city's strength in academic scientific research and public and commercial financial support.
On December 19, , then Mayor Michael R. Tourism is a vital industry for New York City, which has witnessed a growing combined volume of international and domestic tourists, receiving an eighth consecutive annual record of approximately The trademarked logo, owned by New York State Empire State Development ,  appears in souvenir shops and brochures throughout the city and state, some licensed, many not.
The song is the state song of New York. Patrick's Day parade ; seasonal activities such as ice skating in Central Park in the wintertime; the Tribeca Film Festival ; and free performances in Central Park at Summerstage. New York is a prominent location for the American entertainment industry , with many films , television series, books, and other media being set there.
New York City is additionally a center for the advertising , music, newspaper, digital media, and publishing industries and is also the largest media market in North America. Seven of the world's top eight global advertising agency networks have their headquarters in New York. Universal Music Group also has offices in New York. New media enterprises are contributing an increasingly important component to the city's central role in the media sphere.
More than newspapers and consumer magazines have an office in the city,  and the publishing industry employs about 25, people. Major tabloid newspapers in the city include: The Village Voice , historically the largest alternative newspaper in the United States, announced in that it would cease publication of its print edition and convert to a fully digital venture. The television and radio industry developed in New York and is a significant employer in the city's economy.
The three major American broadcast networks are all headquartered in New York: The City of New York operates a public broadcast service, NYC Media ,  that has produced several original Emmy Award -winning shows covering music and culture in city neighborhoods and city government. WBAI , with news and information programming, is one of the few socialist radio stations operating in the United States. New York is also a major center for non-commercial educational media.
The oldest public-access television channel in the United States is the Manhattan Neighborhood Network , founded in WNYC , a public radio station owned by the city until , has the largest public radio audience in the United States.
The city government pays the Pelham Public Schools to educate a very small, detached section of the Bronx. Over , students are enrolled in New York City's over higher education institutions, the highest number of any city in the United States and higher than other major global cities like London  and Tokyo ,  including over half million in the City University of New York CUNY system alone in The city also has other smaller private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions, such as St.
Much of the scientific research in the city is done in medicine and the life sciences. New York City has the most postgraduate life sciences degrees awarded annually in the United States, with Nobel laureates having roots in local institutions as of [update] ;  while in , 43, licensed physicians were practicing in New York City.
HHC's facilities annually provide millions of New Yorkers services interpreted in more than languages. Bellevue is the designated hospital for treatment of the President of the United States and other world leaders if they become sick or injured while in New York City.
Crime has continued an overall downward trend in New York City since the s. In , New York City had the third lowest murder rate among the largest U. Sociologists and criminologists have not reached consensus on the explanation for the dramatic decrease in the city's crime rate. Some attribute the phenomenon to new tactics used by the NYPD,  including its use of CompStat and the broken windows theory.
A strong correlation was found demonstrating that violent crime rates in New York and other big cities began to fall after lead was removed from American gasoline in the s.
The 20th century saw a rise in the Mafia , dominated by the Five Families , as well as in gangs , including the Black Spades. The New York City Fire Department FDNY , provides fire protection , technical rescue, primary response to biological, chemical, and radioactive hazards, and emergency medical services for the five boroughs of New York City.
In addition to responding to building types that range from wood-frame single family homes to high-rise structures , there are many secluded bridges and tunnels, as well as large parks and wooded areas that can give rise to brush fires. New York is also home to one of the largest subway systems in the world, consisting of hundreds of miles of tunnel with electrified track.
New York City has been described as the cultural capital of the world by the diplomatic consulates of Iceland  and Latvia  and by New York's Baruch College. Numerous major American cultural movements began in the city, such as the Harlem Renaissance , which established the African-American literary canon in the United States.
New York has long had a flourishing scene for Jewish American literature. The city is the birthplace of many cultural movements, including the Harlem Renaissance in literature and visual art; abstract expressionism also known as the New York School in painting; and hip hop ,  punk , salsa , freestyle , Tin Pan Alley , certain forms of jazz , and along with Philadelphia disco in music.
New York City has been considered the dance capital of the world. New York Fashion Week is one of the world's preeminent fashion events and is afforded extensive coverage by the media. New York City has more than 2, arts and cultural organizations and more than art galleries of all sizes.
The advent of electric lighting led to elaborate theater productions, and in the s, New York City theaters on Broadway and along 42nd Street began featuring a new stage form that became known as the Broadway musical. Strongly influenced by the city's immigrants, productions such as those of Harrigan and Hart , George M. Cohan , and others used song in narratives that often reflected themes of hope and ambition. New York City itself is the subject or background of many plays and musicals.
Broadway theatre is one of the premier forms of English-language theatre in the world, named after Broadway , the major thoroughfare that crosses Times Square ,  also sometimes referred to as " The Great White Way ". Attendance in — stood at New York City is home to hundreds of cultural institutions and historic sites, many of which are internationally known. Sonntag - Freitag, von Der Settlementpreis ist der gewichtete Durchschnittspreis der Handelsabschlüsse während der 2-minütigen "settlement"-Periode jeweils ab Bei mehr als Kontrakten netto "long" oder "short" über alle Kontraktmonate muss dies der Börse im Rahmen des "reportable limit" mitgeteilt werden.
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Barausgleich nach dem letzten Handelstag "cash settlement". Settlement ist um zwischen Donnerstag vor dem 3. Handelsschluss ist um Liste der Kürzel aller US-amerikanischer und europäischer Terminkontrakte. Margin-Tabelle für spekulative Futures-Positionen.
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